Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common disease of the central nervous system of young adults around the world. It is a chronic inflammatory disease in which the immune system is directed against its own nerve cells and their sheath. In most cases it is characterized by acute episodes of illness, which often spontaneously regresses. The majority of untreated patients are affected with further episodes, which are often followed by a slow disease progression. The disease progresses primarily progressive in less than 15% of the patients.
Typical symptoms include limb sensory deficiencies, acute blurred vision in one eye due to optic nerve inflammation and motor symptoms such as gait disturbances. Bladder or concentration disorders are also possible. A very easy fatigue of the patients and a worsening of the symptoms in the heat is characteristic.
The diagnosis is based on the detection of inflammatory lesions at several points of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), which occurred at different times. A therapy is reasonable even at the first exacerbation. Thus, it is important to have a diagnosis and start a treatment as soon as possible. Nowadays there are a number of drugs that modulate the immune system and prevent further episodes.